Perhaps you have heard of genomics before but don’t really know what it entails. In brief, it is the study of the genes within a person. That includes any interactions that the genomes have with one another as well as how they react to a person’s environment.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the chemical compound that equates to instructions. Those instructions are required to direct and develop every living organism. There are two paired, twisting strands of DNA molecules most commonly referred to as the double helix.
Each strand has four nucleotide bases, which equate to a genetic “alphabet.” They form a complex set of pairings that determine the information that gets encoded in the DNA molecule, unlocking more information about what makes us, well, us.
The complete set of DNA in an organism is a genome. Nearly every cell in the body has a complete copy of roughly three billion DNA base pairs. That makes up the human genome. That DNA contains the information needed to “construct” a human body.
The gene is what carries the information for building the human body to either a singular protein or a set of proteins. There are an estimated 20,000 to 25,000 genes within the human genome or an average of about three proteins. Unlocking the genome and the information within gives us a greater idea of what makes us. It also gives us the potential to fight and prevent diseases at the molecular level.
This refers to the exact order of each of the bases within a single strand of DNA. The benefit here is that both bases are mirrors when it comes to identifying the other member of the pair. Figure one out and you figure out both, for instance.
To assemble all of the pieces to create a larger piece of DNA means reading the sequence of some overlapping segments. It is something like a jigsaw puzzle of the human body. They look for developments and mutations that can help the development of a particular disease.